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Application, Operation System, Technology

Diagram Designer

Description

Diagram Designer Diagram Designer is a simple vector graphics editor for creating flowcharts, UML class diagrams, illustrations and slide shows. It is a tiny freeware application created by Michael Vinther that will work on all versions of Windows 98/ME/2000/XP/Vista/7/8. This is a short list with most powerful features: customizable template object palette, spellchecker, import-export images (support for JPEG, GIF, PNG, BMP, PCX, ICO, MNG, WMF, EMF), slide shower viewer, simple graph plotter (plot mathematical expressions, advanced pocket calculator (including equation solver), MeeSoft Image Analyzer integration (for bitmap image editing and extended file format support), compressed file format for minimizing drawing file size etc. You can change Diagram Designer language by downloading additionally dictionaries and other template palettes from the main page.

Diagram Designer Review

Note: There’s no need to mention the setup process as it took me exactly 5-7 seconds to install Diagram Designer on my computer. Also, I was unable to unzip other template palettes directly in Diagram Designer setup folder so if you encounter this error – create a different folder on your PC and load the template palettes from there – it will work. If you need a free, fast tool to create flowcharts you have to try this application. As soon as I started Diagram Designer I realized that you can really create flowcharts as fast as possible if you’re in a hurry. All you have to do is to drag all kind of elements in your workspace, add text, delete, add, insert pictures, change background, border, set layer color, text alignment  and so on until you get the desired result. At the end, you can save your work in several different, popular images format such as JPEG, PNG, GIF or you can run/save your work as a slideshow. My favorite feature is the ability to import more template palettes. All you have to do is to download a zip archive with all of them from this address or the main page here, unzip them somewhere in a folder and then load them in Diagram Designer. Suddenly, you will have more template palettes for more electronic symbols, websites, electronic display devices, genograms, polygons, Cisco network topology icons and many others. If you need help, keep in mind that this program comes with an excellent help file that covers almost anything you need to know regarding this program. Just press “F1” inside the program or choose the Help section from its menu. Ultimately, this software is a superb masterpiece and a real time saver so if you think the same, please donate any amount to Mr. Michael Vinther the author of this software.   Diagram Designer
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General, Learn and Teach, Operation System, Technology
How do you install fonts on your Mac Fonts can be installed in several folders in OS X, but we recommend that you do the following:
  • Close any open applications. Newly installed fonts may not appear in your menu if you ignore this step.
  • Drag and drop the unzipped fonts into the Fonts folder in your user’s Library folder found here: /Users/Your_Username_Here/Library/Fonts.
  • Note: As of OS Lion, the library folder is hidden from users unless you hold down the Alt/Option key while clicking on the “Go” menu in Finder.
Optional for Mac OS X 10.3 or higher: [ads1] Screen Shot 2015-03-21 at 11.29.35 PM 1     [ads2]
  • Double click the font file and fontbook will open a preview of the font.
  • Click “install font” at the bottom of the preview.
  How do you install fonts on your Mac
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source

User and Group Management Tools

3.3. User and Group Management Tools

Managing users and groups can be tiresome; this is why Fedora provides tools and conventions to make this task easier to manage.
The easiest way to manage users and groups is through the graphical application, User Manager(system-config-users). For more information on User Manager, refer to Section 3.2, “User Manager Tool”.
The following command line tools can also be used to manage users and groups:
  • useradd, usermod, and userdel — Industry-standard methods of adding, deleting and modifying user accounts
  • groupadd, groupmod, and groupdel — Industry-standard methods of adding, deleting, and modifying user groups
  • gpasswd — Industry-standard method of administering the /etc/group file
  • pwck, grpck — Tools used for the verification of the password, group, and associated shadow files
  • pwconv, pwunconv — Tools used for the conversion of passwords to shadow passwords and back to standard passwords

3.3.1. Command Line Configuration

 
If you prefer command line tools or do not have the X Window System installed, use following to configure users and groups.

Adding a User

To add a user to the system:
 
  1. Issue the useradd command to create a locked user account:
    useradd username
  2. Unlock the account by issuing the passwd command to assign a password and set password aging guidelines:
    passwd username
Command line options for useradd are detailed in Table 3.1, “useradd Command Line Options”.
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Table 3.1. useradd Command Line Options
Option Description
-c ‘comment comment can be replaced with any string. This option is generally used to specify the full name of a user.
-d home_directory Home directory to be used instead of default /home/username/.
-e date Date for the account to be disabled in the format YYYY-MM-DD.
-f days Number of days after the password expires until the account is disabled. If 0 is specified, the account is disabled immediately after the password expires. If -1 is specified, the account is not be disabled after the password expires.
-g group_name Group name or group number for the user’s default group. The group must exist prior to being specified here.
-G group_list List of additional (other than default) group names or group numbers, separated by commas, of which the user is a member. The groups must exist prior to being specified here.
-m Create the home directory if it does not exist.
-M Do not create the home directory.
-N Do not create a user private group for the user.
-p password The password encrypted with crypt.
-r Create a system account with a UID less than 500 and without a home directory.
-s User’s login shell, which defaults to /bin/bash.
-u uid User ID for the user, which must be unique and greater than 499.
 

Adding a Group

 
To add a group to the system, use the command groupadd:
groupadd group_name
Command line options for groupadd are detailed in Table 3.2, “groupadd Command Line Options”.
Table 3.2. groupadd Command Line Options
Option Description
-f, --force When used with -g gid and gid already exists, groupadd will choose another unique gid for the group.
-g gid Group ID for the group, which must be unique and greater than 499.
-K, --key key=value Override /etc/login.defs defaults.
-o, --non-unique Allow to create groups with duplicate.
-p, --password password Use this encrypted password for the new group.
-r Create a system group with a GID less than 500.
 

Password Aging

 
For security reasons, it is advisable to require users to change their passwords periodically. This can be done when adding or editing a user on the Password Info tab of the User Manager.
To configure password expiration for a user from a shell prompt, use the chage command with an option fromTable 3.3, “chage Command Line Options”, followed by the username.

Shadow passwords must be enabled to use chage

Shadow passwords must be enabled to use the chage command. For more information, see Section 3.7, “Shadow Passwords”.
Table 3.3. chage Command Line Options
Option Description
-d days Specifies the number of days since January 1, 1970 the password was changed.
-E date Specifies the date on which the account is locked, in the format YYYY-MM-DD. Instead of the date, the number of days since January 1, 1970 can also be used.
-I days Specifies the number of inactive days after the password expiration before locking the account. If the value is 0, the account is not locked after the password expires.
-l Lists current account aging settings.
-m days Specify the minimum number of days after which the user must change passwords. If the value is 0, the password does not expire.
-M days Specify the maximum number of days for which the password is valid. When the number of days specified by this option plus the number of days specified with the -d option is less than the current day, the user must change passwords before using the account.
-W days Specifies the number of days before the password expiration date to warn the user.
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chage interactivity

If the chage command is followed directly by a username (with no options), it displays the current password aging values and allows them to be changed interactively.
You can configure a password to expire the first time a user logs in. This forces users to change passwords immediately.
  1. Set up an initial password — There are two common approaches to this step: the administrator can assign a default password, or he can use a null password.
    To assign a default password, type the following at a shell prompt:
    passwd username
    To assign a null password instead, use the following command:
    passwd -d username

    Avoid using null passwords whenever possible

    Using a null password, while convenient, is a highly insecure practice, as any third party can log in first and access the system using the insecure username. Always make sure that the user is ready to log in before unlocking an account with a null password.
  2. Force immediate password expiration — Type the following command:
    chage -d 0 username
    This command sets the value for the date the password was last changed to the epoch (January 1, 1970). This value forces immediate password expiration no matter what password aging policy, if any, is in place.
Upon the initial log in, the user is now prompted for a new password.
3.3. User and Group Management Tools
3.3. User and Group Management Tools
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Linux, Operation System
 Guide to Unix using Linux Key Terms Chp 1      
Terms Definitions
UNIX/Linux are ____ systems, which let many people simultaneously access and share the resources of a server computer. a. superuser c. multitasking b. peer-to-peer d. multiuser
d. multiuser
UNIX and Linux are ____ systems, which allow one user to execute more than one program at a time. a. server-based c. multitasking b. peer-to-peer d. multiuser
c. multitasking
____ is an Internet terminal emulation program.
c. Telnet
Currently, the ____ project, a joint effort of experts from industry, academia, and government, is working to standardize UNIX. a. POSIX c. ANSI b. BSD d. Ubuntu
a. POSIX
Stephen Bourne at AT&T Bell Labs developed the ____ shell as the first UNIX command processor. a. Bash c. C b. Bourne d. Korn
b. Bourne
Linux uses the freeware ____ shell as its default command interpreter. a. Bash c. C b. Bourne d. Korn
a. Bash
You can use the ____ command to show the system calendar. a. clndr c. cal b. syscal d. calendar
c. cal
To determine information about who is logged in, you can use the ____ command. a. whatis c. whois b. who d. whoami
b. who
In the Linux Bash shell, the ____ key combination moves the cursor to the previous letter. a. Ctrl+b c. Alt+l b. Alt+d d. Ctrl+a
a. Ctrl+b
In the Linux Bash shell, the ____ key combination deletes the content of the command line from the current cursor position to the end of the command line. a. Ctrl+b c. Ctrl+k b. Alt+d d. Ctrl+a
c. Ctrl+k
   

Argument

Text that provides UNIX/LINUX with additional information for executing a command. On the command line, an argument name follows an option name, and a space separates the two. Example are file and directory names.

Authentication

The process of verifying that a user is authorized to access a particular computer, server, network, or network resource, such as Telnet or FTP
 

Bash Shell

A UNIX/LINUX command interpreter (and the default Linux shell ) Incorporates the best features of the Bourne shell and the Korn shell. Its name is an acronym for Bourne Again Shell.

Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)

A distribution of UNIX developed through the University of California at Berkeley, which first distirbuted the BSD UNIX version in 1975.
 

Bourne Shell

The first UNIX/Linux command interpreter, developed at AT&T Bell Labs by Stephen Bourne.
 

C Shell

A UNIX/Linux command interpreter designed for C programmers.
 

Case sensitive

A property that distinguishes uppercase letters from lowercase letters.

Client

A computer on a network running programs or accessing files from a mainframe, network server, or host computer.
 

Command

Text typed after the command line prompt which requests that the computer take a specific action.

Command Line

The onscreen location for typing commands.
 

Domain Name

A name that identifies a grouping of computer resources on a network. Internet-based domain names consist of three parts: a top-level domain, a sub domain and a host name.

FTP File Transfer Protocol

An internet protocol for sending and receiving files.

GUI

Software that transforms bitmaps into an infinite variety of images, so that when you use an operating system you see graphical images.

IP address

A set of four numbers separated by periods. and used to identify and access remote computers on a network or over the internet.

Kernal

The basic operating system, which interacts directly with the hardware and services user programs.

Kernel Mode

A means of accessing the kernel. Its use is limited to the system administrator to prevent unauthorized actions from interfering with the hardware that supports the entire UNIX / Linux structure.

Korn Shell

A UNIX/Linux command interpreter that offers more feature than the original Bourne shell. Developed by David Korn at AT&T Bell labs.
 

Log in

A process that protects privacy and safeguards a mulituser system by requiring each user to type a user name and password before using the system.

Mainframe

A large computer that has historically offered extensive processing, mass storage, and client access for industrial-strengthcp,computing. Mainframes are still in use today, but many have been replaced by PC-type computers that are designed as servers with powerful processing and disk storage capabilities.
 

Man Pages

The online manual pages for UNIX/Linux commands and programs that can be accessed by entering man plus the name of the command or program.

Multitasking System

A system in which many people can simultaneously access and share a server computer’s resources. To protect privacy and safeguard the system, each user must type a user name and password in order to user, or log in to, the system. UNIX and Linux are multiuser systems.
 

Network

A group of computers connected by network cable or wireless communications to allow many users to share computer’s resources and files. It combines and convience and familiarity of the personal computer with the processing power of a mainframe.
 

Operating System (OS)

The most fundamental computer program, it controls all the computer’s resources and provides the base upon which
Guide to Unix using Linux Key Terms Chp 1
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