Show or Hide HDD icon on desktop of mac

Show or Hide HDD icon on desktop of mac

Show or Hide HDD icon on desktop of mac

Finder

You can easily hide or show the “Macintosh HD” main hard drive from the desktop of OS X, along with any other internal volumes and removable drives by adjusting some Finder options.

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If you like to keep your disk drives available on the desktop for easy access like this, here’s what you can do to be sure they’re always visible on the Mac desktop:

How to Show (or Hide) Hard Drives, Disks, and Volumes on the Mac OS X Desktop

This feature is available in all versions of OS X:

  1. Go to the desktop of the Mac if you haven’t yet
  2. Launch the Finder Preferences from the “Finder” menu, or hit Command+,
  3. Under the ‘General’ tab, check or uncheck items you either want shown or hidden, respectively
  4. Close Finder preferences

The settings look like the following:

show or hide hard drive on mac desktop

These changes take effect immediately. Through these preferences you can adjust the visibility of Macintosh HD and other internal hard disks, external drives, CD’s, DVD’s, iPods, and even connected servers.

Macintosh HD is categorized under ‘Hard disks’ so if you leave it checked it will remain visible.

Each drive will have a unique icon visible on the desktop.

Hard drive icon

If you’re a minimalist or you just don’t like the desktop icons and the clutter they can cause, you can always hide all desktop icons in Mac OS X with a simple Terminal command as well.

Vi Commands

To create a shell script:

  1. Use a text editor such as vi. Write required Linux commands and logic in the file.
  2. Save and close the file (exit from vi).
  3. Make the script executable.
  4. You should then of course test the script, and once satisfied with the output, move it to the production environment.
  5. The simplest program in Bash consists of a line that tells the computer a command. Start up your favorite text editor (such as vi):
vi hello.sh

Essential Vi Commands

  • Open a file:
vi filename
  • To go into edit mode:
press ESC and type I
  • To go into command mode:
press ESC
  • To save a file
press ESC and type :w fileName
  • To save a file and quit:
press ESC and type :wq

OR

press ESC and type :x
  • To jump to a line:
press ESC and type :the line number
  • To Search for a string:
Press ESC and type /wordToSearch
  • To quit vi:
Press ESC and type :q

Save the following into a file called hello.sh:

#!/bin/bash
echo "Hello, World!" 
echo "Knowledge is power."

Save and close the file. You can run the script as follows:

 ./hello.sh

Sample outputs:

bash: ./hello.sh: Permission denied

Saving and Running Your Script

The command ./hello.sh displayed an error message on the screen. It will not run script since you’ve not set execute permission for your script hello.sh. To execute this program, type the following command:

chmod +x hello.sh
./hello.sh

Sample Outputs:

Hello, World!
Knowledge is power.

connect through SSH and SFTP in mac

connect through SSH and SFTP in mac

Using SSH and SFTP in Mac OS X

SSH and SFTP are command line applications available from the Terminal (located at /Applications/Utilities/Terminal).

SSH

SSH client is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine.

Connecting

To connect using ssh type at the terminal:

ssh [email protected]_server

Username is your network account username and host_server is the remote server to which you’re connecting.

SFTP

SFTP is an interactive file transfer program, similar to ftp, which performs all operations over an encrypted ssh transport.

Connecting

To connect using sftp type at the terminal:

sftp [email protected]_server

Username is your network account username and host_server is the remote server to which you’re connecting.

Commands

The commands available in SFTP are:

Command Description
pwd
Print working directory of remote host
lpwd
Print working directory of local client
cd
Change directory on the remote host
lcd
Change directory on the local client
ls
List director on the remote host
lls
List directory on the local client
mkdir
Make directory on remote host
lmkdir
Make directory on local client
get
Receive file from remote host to local client
put
Send file from local client to remote host
help
Display help text
Show or Hide HDD icon on desktop of mac

Simultaneously edit a document with other authors

Simultaneously edit a document with other authors

Source

When you collaborate with other authors to create a document, you can save time by simultaneously editing the document, instead of doing this separately. To edit the document at the same time, each author opens the file from a common location on a server.

IMPORTANT   You can simultaneously edit documents in the .docx file format that are located on Windows Live OneDrive or a server that has Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 installed. To work with SharePoint in Office for Mac, you have to have Microsoft Office for Mac Home and Business 2011, Microsoft Office for Mac Academic 2011, or Microsoft Office for Mac Standard 2011.

With the document open on your computer, you can see who else is editing the document, who is editing a specific paragraph, and when updates from other authors are available on the server.

Simultaneously edit a document

Callout 1 Other author currently editing the document

Callout 2 All authors currently editing the document

Callout 3  Changes from other authors available on the server

When you save your changes to the server, any updates from other authors are automatically refreshed in the document. Updates from other authors are refreshed automatically only if they don’t conflict with changes that you made. If you and another author both change the same item, then a conflict may occur. If a conflict occurs when you save the document, you are prompted to review the conflict and accept or reject the change.

Do any of the following:

Save a document to a SharePoint site

When you save a document in a library on your organization’s SharePoint site, you and your colleagues have a central location for accessing the document. You can send a link instead of sending an attachment. In this manner, you maintain just a single copy of the document. If people make revisions, they do so in the same copy. You do not have to reconcile multiple versions and copies of the document.

  1. On the File menu, point to Share, and then click Save to SharePoint.
  2. To add a SharePoint site, click Add a location  Add a location, enter the URL to the SharePoint library, and then clickAdd.NOTE   By default, many SharePoint sites have a Shared Documents library. An example of a URL that links to this library is http://fabrikam/shared%documents.
  3. In the Save As box, enter the name of your document.
  4. Under Recent Locations or Saved Locations, click the SharePoint library where you want to save the document, and then click Save.TIP   The last several documents that you have opened from a SharePoint site, either through Office for Mac, Document Connection for Mac, or your browser, are listed under Recent Locations.

Save a document to a Windows Live OneDrive

When you save a document to OneDrive, the document is stored in a central location that you can access from almost anywhere. Even if you’re away from your computer, you can work on your document whenever you have a connection to the Web. Saving a document to OneDrive also makes it easy to share the document with other people. You can send a link instead of sending an attachment. In this manner, you maintain just a single copy of the document. If people make revisions, they do so in the same copy. You do not have to reconcile multiple versions and copies of the document.

  1. On the File menu, point to Share, and then click Save to OneDrive.
  2. If this is the first time that you have tried to access OneDrive, enter your Window Live ID and Password, and then click Sign In.If you use Hotmail, Messenger, or Xbox Live, you already have a Windows Live ID. If you don’t have one, clickGet a Live ID to create a new Windows Live ID.
  3. In the Save As box, enter the name of your document.
  4. Under Personal Folders or Shared Folders, click the folder where you want to save the document, and then click Save.

Open a document that is located on a SharePoint site

  1. On the File menu, click Open URL.
  2. In the URL box, type the URL for the document that is located on SharePoint, such as http://fabrikam/shared%20documents/DocumentName.docx.NOTE   You have to use a URL for a document in a SharePoint library. You cannot use a URL for other areas of a SharePoint site, such as a SharePoint list or top-level sites.
  3. Click Open.NOTES
    • You can also open a document that is located on SharePoint from your browser. To open the document in Word, click Open in Word.
    • If you prefer to edit the file separately instead of at the same time as other authors, you can check out the file from the SharePoint site. When you check out a file, the other authors are “locked out” and can only read the file.

Open a document that is located on a Windows Live OneDrive

  1. Open your browser and sign in to Windows Live OneDrive.
  2. Find and click the document, and then click Open in Word.

See who else is editing a document

  1. On the View menu, click Print Layout.
  2. Do one of the following:
To Do this
See who is editing anywhere in the document On the status bar at the bottom of the window, click the numbered icon  Collaboration Bar presence icon.

To send a communication to someone, click his or her name, and then click a communication method – for example, send an instant message.

See who is editing a specific paragraph In the document, click the icon next to the paragraph.

Presense icon

To send a communication to someone, click his or her name, and then click a communication method – for example, send an instant message.

Save and refresh a document that has updates

When you save your changes to the server, any other authors who are editing the document are notified that updates are available. Any updates from other authors are automatically refreshed in the document at that time if they don’t conflict with your changes. You can see when other authors save changes to the server because a message that indicates that updates are available appears on the status bar at the bottom of the window.

  1. On the status bar at the bottom of the window, click Updates Available  Updates available to refresh the document with updates.
  2. On the This document was refreshed with updates by other authors dialog box, click OK.Your changes are saved to the server, and updates that were made by the other authors appear in your document as tracked changes.

    NOTES

    • Updates that were made by other authors are refreshed automatically only if they don’t conflict with your changes. If any updates conflict with your changes, you will be able to review the conflicting changes before they are saved and decide which changes to accept or reject.
    • You can also click Save  Save and refresh button  on the Standard toolbar to refresh the document with updates that were made by other authors.

Review and accept changes from other authors

If you want to track the changes made by other authors, turn on Track Changes and save the document to the server. When you are ready to review the updates from other authors, you can see what has been added to or removed from the document. By using Track Changes, you can decide whether you want to accept or reject those changes.

CAUTION   Before you can accept or reject another author’s changes in a blocked area, you must remove that author’s block. You should only remove a block when you know that all other authors are finished editing the document. Otherwise, you run the risk of creating conflicts. Using Undo  Undo button does not restore a block.

  1. Click any areas that are blocked by other authors and then click Unblock.
  2. Accept or reject changes as you would in any other document. For more information, see Use tracked changes.
  3. When you finish accepting changes, save this version of the document on the server.

 

Alias

Alias

alias

Create an alias. Aliases allow a string to be substituted for a word. An alias can be used as the first word of any simple command.

Syntax
      alias [-p] [name[=value] ...]

      unalias [-a] [name...]

Key
   -p   Print the current values

   -a   Remove All aliases

When arguments are supplied, an alias is defined for each name whose value is given. A trailing space in value causes the next word to be checked for alias
substitution when the alias is expanded.

If no value is given, (or with the -p option) alias will print a list of Aliases along with their current values. For each name in the argument list for which no value is supplied, the name and value of the alias is printed.

Alias returns true unless a name is given for which no alias has been defined.

name can not be `alias’ or `unalias’.

unalias can be used to remove each name from the list of defined aliases.

Alias substitution
The shell maintains a list of aliases which can be set, unset and printed by the alias and unalias commands. After a command line is parsed into simple commands the first word of each command, left-to-right, is checked to see if it has an alias. If so, the first word is replaced by the alias. If the alias contains a history reference, it undergoes History substitution (q.v.) as though the original command were the previous input line. If the alias does not contain a history reference, the argument list is left untouched.

Thus if the alias for ls were ls -l the command ls /usr would become ls -l /usr, the argument list here being undisturbed. If the alias for lookup were grep !^ /etc/passwd‘ then lookup bill would become grep bill /etc/passwd.

Aliases can be used to introduce parser metasyntax. For example, alias print ‘pr \!* | lpr’ defines a command (print) which pr‘s its arguments to the line printer.

The first word of the replacement text is tested for aliases, but a word that is identical to an alias being expanded is not expanded a second
time. This means that you can alias ls to ls -F, for instance, and bash does not try to recursively expand the replacement text.

Examples

Create an alias ‘c’ that will clear the screen:
$ alias c=’clear’

Create an alias ‘ls’ that will change the default action of ls:
$ alias ls=’ls –classify’
$ ls
$ unalias ls

More aliases for ls:
$ alias la=’ls -lAXh –color=always’   #Show all, sort by extension
$ alias ls-al=’ls -al’   #fix typo missing space
$ alias l=”ls -l”
$ alias la=”ls -la”

Use alias to fix missing space typos:
$ alias cd..=’cd ..’
$
alias ..=’cd ..’

Display the working directory
$ alias .=’echo $PWD’

Prevent accidental deletions by making rm interactive:
$ alias rm=’rm -i’

Shorten apt-get installation commands:
$ alias canhaz=’sudo apt-get install’

Run firefox and open a specific website:
$ alias fftr=’/Applications/Firefox.app/Contents/MacOS/firefox-bin http://ss64.com’

Produce a custom prompt to display which machine you are on, the current folder, and the number of the current command:

   $ alias cd='cd \!*; set currDir = `basename $cwd`; set currDir = `echo
   "<${host}:"$currDir
   " ! >"`; set prompt = "${currDir} "'
   $ cd $cwd

<Mac_One:Work-folder 15 >

Making an alias permanent:

Assuming you have the BASH shell, then use your favorite text editor to edit or create a file called ~/.bash_aliases and add your alias commands.

alias is a bash built-in command.

“There are many reasons why novelists write, but they all have one thing in common – a need to create an alternative world” ~ John Fowles

Related:

Alias man page – Apple.com
env – Display, set, or remove environment variables
echo – Display message on screen
set – Set a shell variable
shift – Shift positional parameters

Apple OS X command line

An A-Z Index of the Apple OS X command line

You can get more from Apple.com

Source

  alias     Create an alias •
  alloc     List used and free memory
  apropos   Search the whatis database for strings
  asr       Apple Software Restore
  awk       Find and Replace text within file(s)
b
  basename  Convert a full pathname to just a filename
  bash      Bourne-Again SHell
  bg        Send to background •
  bind      Display readline key and function bindings •
  bless     Set volume bootability and startup disk options
  break     Exit from a For, While, Until or Select loop •
  builtin   Execute a shell builtin •
  bzip2     Compress or decompress files
c
  cal       Display a calendar
  calendar  Reminder Service
  caller    Return the context of a subroutine call •
  case      Conditionally perform a command •
  cat       Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
  cd        Change Directory •
  chflags   Change a file or folder's flags
  chgrp     Change group ownership
  chmod     Change access permissions
  chown     Change file owner and group
  chroot    Run a command with a different root directory
  cksum     Print CRC checksum and byte counts
  clear     Clear terminal screen
  cmp       Compare two files
  comm      Compare two sorted files line by line
  command   Run a command (not a function) •
  complete  Edit a command completion [word/pattern/list] •
  continue  Resume the next iteration of a loop •
  cp        Copy one or more files to another location
  cron      Daemon to execute scheduled commands
  crontab   Schedule a command to run at a later date/time
  csplit    Split a file into context-determined pieces
  curl      Transfer data  from or to a server
  cut       Divide a file into several parts
d
  date      Display or change the date & time
  dc        Desk Calculator
  dd        Convert and copy a file, clone disks
  declare   Declare variable & set attributes •
  defaults  Set preferences, show hidden files
  df        Display free disk space
  diff      Display the differences between two files
  diff3     Show differences among three files
  dig       DNS lookup
  dirname   Convert a full pathname to just a path
  dirs      Display list of remembered directories •
  diskutil  Disk utilities - Format, Verify, Repair
  disown    Unbind a job from the current login session •
  ditto     Copy files and folders
  dot_clean Remove dot-underscore files
  drutil    Interact with CD/DVD burners
  dscacheutil  Query or flush the Directory Service/DNS cache
  dseditgroup  Edit, create, manipulate, or delete groups
  dsenableroot Enable root access
  dsmemberutil View user and groups rights
  dscl      Directory Service command line utility
  du        Estimate file space usage
e
  echo      Display text on screen •
  ed        A line-oriented text editor (edlin)
  enable    Enable and disable builtin shell commands •
  env       List or Set environment variables
  eval      Evaluate several commands/arguments •
  exec      Execute a command •
  exit      Exit the shell •
  expand    Convert tabs to spaces
  expect    Programmed dialogue with interactive programs
            Also see AppleScript
  export    Set an environment variable •
  expr      Evaluate expressions
f
  false     Do nothing, unsuccessfully
  fc        Fix command (history)
  fdisk     Partition table manipulator for Darwin UFS/HFS/DOS
  fg        Send job to foreground •
  file      Determine file type
  find      Search for files that meet a desired criteria
  fmt       Reformat paragraph text
  fold      Wrap text to fit a specified width
  for       Loop command •
  fsck      Filesystem consistency check and repair
  fsaclctl  Filesystem enable/disable ACL support
  fs_usage  Filesystem usage (process/pathname)
  ftp       Internet file transfer program
  function  Define Function Macros
g
  GetFileInfo Get attributes of HFS+ files
  getopt    Parse positional parameters
  getopts   Parse positional parameters •
  goto      Jump to label and continue execution
  grep      Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
  groups    Print group names a user is in
  gzip      Compress or decompress files
h
  halt      Stop and restart the operating system
  hash      Refresh the cached/remembered location of commands •
  head      Display the first lines of a file
  hdiutil   Manipulate iso disk images
  history   Command History •
  hostname  Print or set system name
i
  iconv     Convert the character set of a file
  id        Print user and group names/id's
  if        Conditionally perform a command •
  ifconfig  Configure network interface parameters
  ipconfig  View and control IP configuration state
  info      Help info
  install   Copy files and set attributes
j
  jobs      List active jobs •
  join      Join lines on a common field
k
  kextfind  List kernel extensions
  kickstart Configure Apple Remote Desktop
  kill      Kill a process by specifying its PID
  killall   Kill processes by name
l
  l         List files in long format (ls -l)
  last      Indicate last logins of users and ttys
  launchctl Load or unload daemons/agents
  ll        List files in long format, showing invisible files (ls -la)
  less      Display output one screen at a time
  let       Evaluate expression •
  lipo      Convert a universal binary
  ln        Make links between files (hard links, symbolic links)
  local     Set a local (function) variable •
  locate    Find files
  logname   Print current login name
  login     log into the computer
  logout    Exit a login shell (bye) •
  look      Display lines beginning with a given string
  lpr       Print files
  lprm      Remove jobs from the print queue
  lpstat    Printer status information
  ls        List information about file(s)
  lsregister Reset the Launch Services database
  lsbom     List a bill of materials file
  lsof      List open files
m
  man       Help manual
  mdfind    Spotlight search
  mdutil    Manage Spotlight metadata store
  mkdir     Create new folder(s)
  mkfifo    Make FIFOs (named pipes)
  more      Display output one screen at a time
  mount     Mount a file system
  mv        Move or rename files or directories
n
  nano      Simple text editor
  net       Manage network resources
  netstat   Show network status
  networksetup Network and System Preferences
  nice      Set the priority of a command
  nohup     Run a command immune to hangups
  ntfs.util NTFS file system utility
o
  onintr    Control the action of a shell interrupt
  open      Open a file/folder/URL/Application
  opensnoop Snoop file opens as they occur
  osacompile Compile Applescript
  osascript Execute AppleScript
p
  passwd    Modify a user password
  paste     Merge lines of files
  pbcopy    Copy data to the clipboard
  pbpaste   Paste data from the Clipboard
  ping      Test a network connection
  pkill     Kill processes by a full or partial name
  pkgutil   Query and manipulate installed packages
  plutil    Property list utility
  pmset     Power Management settings
  popd      Restore the previous value of the current directory •
  pr        Convert text files for printing
  printenv  List environment variables
  printf    Format and print data •
  ps        Process status
  pushd     Save and then change the current directory
  pwd       Print Working Directory •
q
  quota     Display disk usage and limits
r
  rcp       Copy files between machines
  read      Read one line from standard input •
  readonly  Mark a variable or function as read-only •
  reboot    Stop and restart the system
  return    Exit a function •
  rev       Reverse lines of a file
  rm        Remove files
  rmdir     Remove folder(s)
  rpm       Remote Package Manager
  rsync     Remote file copy - Sync file tree
s
  say       Convert text to audible speech
  screen    Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
  screencapture Capture screen image to file or disk
  scutil    Manage system configuration parameters
  sdiff     Merge two files interactively
  security  Administer Keychains, keys, certificates and the Security framework
  sed       Stream Editor
  select    Generate a list of items •
  set       Set a shell variable = value •
  setfile   Set attributes of HFS+ files
  shasum    Print or Check SHA Checksums
  shift     Shift positional parameters •
  shopt     Set shell options •
  shutdown  Shutdown or restart OS X
  sips      Scriptable image processing system
  sleep     Delay for a specified time
  softwareupdate System software update tool
  sort      Sort text files
  source    Execute commands from a file •
  split     Split a file into fixed-size pieces
  srm       Securely remove files or directories
  stat      Display the status of a file
  stop      Stop a job or process
  su        Substitute user identity
  sudo      Execute a command as another user
  sum       Print a checksum for a file
  suspend   Suspend execution of this shell •
  sw_vers   Print Mac OS X operating system version
  system_profiler  Report system configuration
  systemsetup Computer and display system settings
t
  tail      Output the last part of files
  tar       Tape ARchiver
  tcpdump   Dump traffic on a network
  tee       Redirect output to multiple files
  test      Condition evaluation •
  textutil  Manipulate text files in various formats (Doc,html,rtf)
  time      Measure Program Resource Use
  times     Print shell & shell process times •
  tmutil    Time Machine utility
  top       Display process information
  touch     Change file timestamps
  tput      Set terminal-dependent capabilities, color, position
  tr        Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
  trap      Execute a command when the shell receives a signal •
  traceroute Trace Route to Host
  true      Do nothing, successfully
  tty       Print filename of terminal on stdin
  type      Describe a command •
u
  ufs.util  Mount/unmount UFS file system
  ulimit    limit the use of system-wide resources •
  umask     Users file creation mask
  umount    Unmount a device
  unalias   Remove an alias •
  uname     Print system information
  unexpand  Convert spaces to tabs
  uniq      Uniquify files
  units     Convert units from one scale to another
  unset     Remove variable or function names •
  until     Loop command •
  uptime    Show how long system has been running
  users     Print login names of users currently logged in
  uuencode  Encode a binary file 
  uudecode  Decode a file created by uuencode
  uuidgen   Generate a Unique ID (UUID/GUID)
  uucp      Unix to Unix copy
v
  vi        Text Editor
w
  wait      Wait for a process to complete •
  wc        Print byte, word, and line counts
  whatis    Search the whatis database for complete words
  whereis   Locate a program
  which     Locate a program file in the user's path
  while     Loop command •
  who       Print all usernames currently logged on
  whoami    Print the current user id and name (`id -un')
  write     Send a message to another user
x
  xargs     Execute utility - passing arguments
  xattr     Display and manipulate extended attributes
 youtube-dl Download video
  yes       Print a string until interrupted
  zip       Package and compress (archive) files.
  !!        Run the last command again

Apple OS X command line

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